the year 1976, after the application of the new political administrative
division of the country, La Habana, becomes a province independent
from the City of Havana, today's capital of the island.
Prior to that, they both shared the same territory. That is the
reason why their history is intimately related.
By the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th, the rising
in agricultural production determined the introduction of great
amounts of African slaves. The life of those slaves was characterized
by mistreatment and disregard for their human condition. The struggle
of those slaves for their freedom, brought about uprisings in which
the slaves, armed with sticks, stones, and working instruments,
headed for the forests and caves. There, they organized themselves
in refuges called "Palenques" distributed all along this
During the wars of independence, it was vital to maintain armed
groups in the western region of the country in order to weaken the
Spanish economy and balance the weight of the war in the east and
center of the country. The strongest conspirative were located in
the zones of San Antonio de los Baños, Güira de Melena,
Bejucal, Alquízar, Bauta, and Jaruco.
The western provinces counted on developed ways of communication
and that favored the Spanish troops. The topography was also in
favor of the Spaniards. Nevertheless, the insurrectionist forces
managed to use more than fifty-three caves of this region as camps,
hospitals, nurseries, arms deposits, and forges.
In a farm located in the zone of Punta Brava, Bauta, was fought
on December 6, 1896 the battle in which liutenant general Antonio
Maceo was killed.
During the neocolonial republic, the inhabitants of this region
were linked to working-class struggles and committed in the fight
against Batista. From the municipality of Artemisa, a numerous group
of young patriots, led by Fidel Castro, took part in the Moncada
Garrison attack in Santiago de Cuba.